AIM-related information and resources pertaining to higher education.
The Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Post-Secondary Education for Students with Disabilities
Learn about the work of the Advisory Commission on AIM:
On this web site: http://aim.cast.org/collaborate/p-s_commission
On the ed.gov web site: http://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/aim/index.html
AIM as Equal Access to Educational Opportunity
On June 29, 2010, the Office of Civil Rights, United States Department of Education, sent a joint letter to all United States college and university presidents. In this letter, OCR attorneys affirmed that—
"Requiring use of an emerging technology in a classroom environment when the technology is inaccessible to an entire population of individuals with disabilities—individuals with visual disabilities—is discrimination prohibited by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504) unless those individuals are provided accommodations or modifications that permit them to receive all the educational benefits provided by the technology in an equally effective and equally integrated manner" (Office of Civil Rights, US Department of Education,(2010) Joint Letter, Washington, DC).
The civil rights mandates require post-secondary institutions to provide equitable access to all learning materials and activities, digital or otherwise. This extends to textbooks, courseware, learning management systems, instructional software programs—in short, any and all curriculum resources required for use in academic programs.
Relevant Legislation Facilitating AIM in Higher Education
The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 requires all post-secondary institutions, as of July 1, 2010, to make textbook information available for all courses, including both ISBNs and pricing information. This information must be offered as part of an institution’s online class schedule, and must be viewable by students in advance of registration for any given academic term:
SECTION 133 TEXTBOOK INFORMATION
(d) Provision of ISBN College Textbook Information in Course Schedules: To the maximum extent practicable, each institution of higher education receiving federal financial assistance shall—
(1) disclose, on the institution's Internet course schedule and in a manner of the institution's choosing, the International Standard Book Number and retail price information of required and recommended college textbooks and supplemental materials for each course listed in the institution's course schedule used for pre-registration and registration purposes, except that—
(A) if the International Standard Book Number is not available for such college textbook or supplemental material, then the institution shall include in the Internet course schedule the author, title, publisher, and copyright date for such college textbook or supplemental material; and
(B) if the institution determines that the disclosure of the information described in this sub-section is not practicable for a college textbook or supplemental material, then the institution shall so indicate by placing the designation 'To Be Determined' in lieu of the information required under this sub-section; and
(2) if applicable, include on the institution's written course schedule a notice that textbook information is available on the institution's Internet course schedule, and the Internet address for such schedule.
Who Qualifies for AIM?
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act covers qualified students with disabilities who attend schools receiving Federal financial assistance. To be protected under Section 504, a student must be determined to: (1) have a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; or (2) have a record of such an impairment; or (3) be regarded as having such an impairment. http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/504faq.html
Americans with Disabilities Amendment Act
The ADAAA retains the basic definition of "disability" as an impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a record of such an impairment, or being regarded as having such an impairment. http://www.dol.gov/ofccp/regs/compliance/faqs/ADAfaqs.htm
Accessible Instructional Materials & Universal Design for Learning
Accessible instructional materials (AIM) represent one of the key element of the curriculum of any learning environment. In its most global sense, the “curriculum” is comprised of instructional goals, methods, assessments, and materials and even though “materials” can be singled out as a specific component, they permeate all aspects of the education enterprise. For that reason, they need to be accessible to and appropriate for each student in a class or course. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for ensuring not only access, but for maximizing the achievement potential of every student. The UDL framework addresses each of the four elements of the curriculum and is predicated on the availability of accessible instructional materials, noting that they are an essential, but insufficient, foundation for a UDL environment. Essential, since without them the education enterprise cannot reach every student; insufficient, since more than accessible instructional materials are needed to teach every student.
For examples of AIM in the UDL context, see the following:
Dawn Tamarkin Video at UDL Center
Best Practices Through Universal Design for Learning
Sources of AIM for Post-Secondary Students
Bookshare.org— e-text (DAISY format) & Braille:
www.Bookshare.org provides free memberships to all post-secondary (public and private) students with qualifying print disabilities. In addition, Bookshare provides these students with free supported reading software for displaying and reading aloud Bookshare books.
Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic—audio (DAISY format), human narration and synthetic speech, and e-text:
www.rfbd.org offers free membership to qualifying post-secondary students with print disabilities.
American Printing House for the Blind
www.aph.org provides qualifying blind/low vision students with free access to braille and large print instructional materials.
Accesstext.org—(PDF, -.doc., -.txt):
www.accesstext.org is a publisher-supported portal for acquiring alternate formats of print-based post-secondary instructional materials. Individual students are not Accesstext members; rather, digital versions of print materials are distributed through a network of DSS (disabled student services) offices at each post-secondary institution.
Accessible Textbook Finder:
http://www.accesstext.org/atf.php The Accessible Textbook Finder (ATF) searches multiple sources of accessible books by ISBN or title, and provides the combined results with links to the source materials.
Research and Information
College Web Pages Are “Widely Inaccessible” to People with Disabilities
August 12, 2010
This brief article, published in The Chronicle of Higher Education, discusses the recent trend of college web sites inaccessible to people with disabilities. According to the article, this is due in part to the inaccessibility of emerging web-based technologies that universities are implementing on their web sites.
The Legal Environment of Accessible Post-Secondary Online Learning
Kevin L. Crow
This paper focuses on legislation pertaining to online learning at the post-secondary level. It explicitly discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Section 504 and Section 508 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Telecommunications Act of 1996. At the end of the paper it is recommended that colleges and universities create policies and standards pertaining to accessibility and that they should adhere to the principles of Universal Design when creating materials.
Higher Education Opportunity Act—Textbook Policies
Kenneth L. Servis
December 18, 2008
This article was written for the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Office (AACRAO) and discusses what information colleges must provide students when they sign up for classes. The primary change in legislation is that textbook information must be available during pre-registration and registration periods, rather than just in a course syllabus. Specifics of what needs to be included, such as ISBN and course information, are also discussed.
Section 504 Student Eligibility for Students with Reading Disabilities: A Primer for Advocates
Kevin P. Brady
This paper discusses who is eligible for accommodations under Section 504 (“eligibility is based on the definition of disability,” “eligibility is not age-restricted under Section 504,” “eligibility is non-categorical and significantly broader than IDEA,” “eligibility is based on the function impact of a physical or mental impairment, not just the need for special education”) as well as the process of identifying Section 504 students. These steps include—
- Student referral: initiating the Section 504 process
- Student evaluation
- Student eligibility determination
- Student program planning
- Student placement
- Student re-evaluation
It also includes a comparison chart between IDEA and Section 504 based around “purpose of law,” “what students are protected,” “Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE),” and “Least Restrictive Environment (LRE).”
The Experience of Higher Education from the Perspective of Disabled Students
This article discusses a study completed to examine the perspectives of six disabled students from the United Kingdom in post-secondary education. It was found that, despite attempts at inclusion, these students experienced feelings of marginalization and additional stress at university based on their disabilities. It was recommended that the university create a consistent policy and training for staff members on creating learning environments that are consistently accessible to all learners.
Section 504 and the ADA Promoting Student Access: A Resource Guide for Educators (Second Edition)
Council of Administrators of Special Education
This document was prepared for school administrators. Three helpful graphics were provided. First, a comparison chart between IDEA, Section 504, and ADA was included. It covered a variety of topics from who is covered under each law to how each law is enacted in a school. Second, it included a flowchart on the process of identifying a student as falling under IDEA or Section 504 based on their needs. Third, there is a graphic about the populations covered under each law.
Section 504 and IDEA: Basic Similarities and Differences
S. James Rosenfeld
This article, written for a parent audience, gives a brief overview of how Section 504 and IDEA are different and how they are the same. The purpose is to inform parents so that they can be better advocates for children who do not qualify under IDEA, but might still qualify under Section 504. It includes information on “evaluation requirements,” “placement decisions,” and “complaints, compliance, and monitoring.”